In This Very Life
Sayadaw U Pandita
BASIC MORALITY & MEDITATION INSTRUCTIONS
We do not practice meditation to gain admiration from anyone. Rather, we practice to contribute to peace in the world. We try to follow the teachings of the Buddha, and take the instructions of trustworthy teachers, in hopes that we too can reach the Buddha's state of purity. Having realized this purity within ourselves, we can inspire others and share this Dhamma, this truth.
The Buddha's teachings can be summed up in three parts: sila, morality; samaddhi, concentration; and panna, intuitive wisdom.
Sila is spoken of first because it is the foundation for the other two. Its importance cannot be overstressed. Without sila, no further practices can be undertaken. For lay people the basic level of sila consists of five precepts or training rules: refraining from taking life, refraining from taking what is not given, refraining from sexual misconduct, refraining from lying, and refraining from taking intoxicating substances. These observances foster a basic purity that makes it easy to progress along the path of practice.
A BASIC SENSE OF HUMANITY
Sila is not a set of commandments handed down by the Buddha, and it need not be confined to Buddhist teachings. It actually derives from a basic sense of humanity. For example, suppose we have a spurt of anger and want to harm another being. If we put ourselves in that other being's shoes, and honestly contemplate the action we have been planning, we will quickly answer, "No, I wouldn't want that done to me. That would be cruel and unjust." If we feel this way about some action that we plan, we can be quite sure that the action is unwholesome.
In this way, morality can be looked upon as a manifestation of our sense
of oneness with other beings. We know what it feels like to be harmed,
and out of loving care and consideration we undertake to avoid harming
others. We should remain committed to truthful speech and avoid words that
abuse, deceive, or slander. As we practice refraining from angry actions
and angry speech, then this gross and unwholesome mental state may gradually
cease to arise, or at least it will become weaker and less frequent.
Of course, anger is not the only reason we harm other beings. Greed might make us try to grab something in an illegal or unethical way. Or our sexual desire can attach itself to another person's partner. Here again, if we consider how much we could hurt someone, we will try hard to refrain from succumbing to lustful desire.
Even in small amounts, intoxicating substances can make us less sensitive, more easily swayed by gross motivations of anger and greed. Some people defend the use of drugs or alcohol, saying that these substances are not so bad. On the contrary, they are very dangerous; they can lead even a good-hearted person into forgetfulness. Like accomplices to a crime, intoxicants open the door to a host of problems, from just talking nonsense, to inexplicable bursts of rage, to negligence that could be fatal to oneself or others. Indeed, any intoxicated person is unpredictable. Abstaining from intoxicants is therefore a way of protecting all the other precepts.
For those whose devotion makes them wish to undertake a further discipline, there are also sets of eight and ten precepts for lay people, ten precepts for nuns, and the Vinaya,or 227 rules for monks. There is more information about these forms of sila in the glossary.
Refinements during a Retreat
During a meditation retreat it becomes useful to change some of our conduct in ways that support the intensification of meditation practice. In a retreat, silence becomes the appropriate form of right speech, and celibacy that of sexual conduct. One eats lightly to prevent drowsiness and to weaken sensual appetite. The Buddha recommended fasting from noon until the following morning; or, if this is difficult, one could eat only a little in the afternoon. During the time one thus gains to practice, one may wall discover that the taste of the Dhamma excels all worldly tastes!
Cleanliness is another support for developing insight and wisdom. You
should bathe, keep nails and hair trimmed, and take care to regulate the
bowel,. This ks known as internal cleanliness. Externally, your clothing
and bedroom should be tidy and neat. Such observance is said to bring clarity
and lightness of mind. Obviously, you do not make cleanliness an
obsession. In the context of a retreat, adornments, cosmetics, fragrances,
and time-consuming practices to beautify and perfect the body are not appropriate.
In fact, in the world there is no greater adornment than purity of conduct,, no greater refuge, and no other basis for the flowering of insight and wisdom. Sila brings, a beauty that is not plastered onto the outside, but instead comes from the heart and is reflected, in the entire person. Suitable for everyone, regardless of age, station, or circumstance, truly it is the adornment for all seasons. So please be sure to keep your virtue fresh and alive.
Even if we refine our speech and action, to a large extent, however, sila ks not sufficient in itself to tame the mind. A method is needed to bring us to spiritual maturity, to help us realize the real nature of life and to bring the mind to a higher level of understanding. That method is meditation.
The Buddha suggested that either a forest place under a tree or any other very quiet place is best for meditation. He said the meditator should sit quietly and peacefully with legs crossed. If sitting with crossed legs proves to be too difficult, other sitting postures may be used. For those with back trouble a chair is quite acceptable. It is true that to achieve peace of mind, we must make sure our body is at peace. So it is important to choose a position that will be comfortable for a long period of time.
Sit with your back erect, at a right angle to the ground, but not too stiff. The reason for sitting straight is not difficult to see. An arched or crooked back will soon bring pain. Furthermore, the physical effort to remain upright without additional support energizes the meditation practice.
Close your eyes. Now place your attention at the belly, at the abdomen. Breathe normally, not forcing your breathing, neither slowing it down nor hastening it, just a normal breath: You will become aware of certain sensation as you breathe in and the abdomen rises, as you breathe out and the abdomen falls. Now sharpen your aim and make sure that the.mind is attentive the entirety of each process, Be aware from the very beginning of all the sensations involved in the rising. Maintain a steady attention through the middle and end of the rising. Then be aware of the sensations of the falling movement of the abdomen from the begriming, through the middle, and to the very end of the falling.
Although we describe the rising and falling as having a beginning, a middle, and an end, this is only in order to show that your awareness should be continuous and thorough. We do not intend you to break these processes into three segments. You should try to be aware of each of these movements from beginning to end as one complete process, as a whole. Do not peer at the sensations with an overfocused mind, specifically looking to discover how the abdominal movement begins or ends.
In this meditation it is very important to have both effort and precise aim, so that the mind meets the sensation directly and powerfully. An essential aid to precision and accuracy is to make a soft mental note of the object of awareness, naming the sensation. by saying the word gently and silently in the mind, like "rising, rising...falling, falling."
Returning from Wandering
There will be moments when the mind wanders off. You will start to think of something. At this time, watch the mind! Be .aware that you are thinking. To clarify this to yourself, note the thought silently with the verbal label "thinking, thinking," and come back to the rising and falling.
The same practice should be used for objects of awareness ~at arise at any of what are called the six sense doors: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body; and mind. Despite making an effort to do so, no one can remain perfectly focused.on the rising and falling of the abdomen forever. Other objects inevitably arise and become predominant. Thus, the sphere of meditation encompasses all of our experiences: sights, sounds, smalls, tastes-sensations in the body, and mental objects such as visions in the imagination or emotions. When any of these objects arise you should focus direct awareness on them, and use a gentle verbal label "spoken" in the mind.
During-a sitting meditation, if another object impinges strongly on the awareness so as to draw it away from the rising and falling of the abdomen, this object must be dearly noted. For example, if a loud sound arises during your meditation, consciously direct your attention toward that sound as soon as it arises. Be aware of the sound as a direct experience, and also identify it succinctly with the soft, internal verbal label "hearing, hearing." When the sound fades and is no longer predominant, come back to the rising and falling. This is the basic principle to follow in sitting meditation.
In making the verbal label, there is no need for complex language. One simple word is best. For the eye, ear, and tongue doors we simply say, "Seeing, seeing... Hearing, hearing... Tasting, tasting." For sensations in the body we may choose a slightly more descriptive term like warmth, pressure, hardness, or motion. Mental objects appear to present a bewildering diversity, but actually they fall into just a few clear categories such as thinking, imagining, remembering, planning, and visualizing. But remember that in using the labeling technique, your goal is not to gain verbal skills. Labeling technique helps us to perceive clearly the actual qualities of our experience, without getting immersed in the content. It develops mental power and focus. In meditation we seek a deep, clear, precise awareness of the mind and body. This direct awareness shows us the truth about our lives, the actual nature of mental and physical processes.
Meditation need not come to an end after an hour of sitting. It can be carried out continuously through the day. When you get up from sitting, you must note carefully, beginning with the intention to open the eyes. "Intending, intending... Opening, opening." Experience the. mental event of intending, and feel the sensations of opening the eyes. Continue to note carefully and precisely, with full observing power, through the whole transition of postures until the moment you have stood up, and when you begin to walk. Throughout the day you should also be aware of, and mentally note, all other activities, such as stretching, bending your arm, taking a spoon, putting on clothes; brushing your teeth, dosing the door, opening the door, dosing your eyelids, eating, and so forth. All of these activities should be noted with careful awareness and a soft mental label. Apart from the hours of sound sleep, you should try to maintain continuous mindfulness throughout your waking hours. Actually this is not a heavy task; it is just sitting and walking and simply observing whatever occurs.
During a retreat it is usual to alternate periods of sitting meditation with periods of formal walking meditation of about the same duration, one after another throughout the day. One hour is a standard period, but forty-five minutes can also be used. For formal walking, retreatants choose a lane of about twenty steps in length and walk slowly back and forth along it.
In daily life, walking meditation can also be very helpful. A short period--say ten minutes--of formal walking meditation before sitting serves to focus the mind. Beyond this advantage; the awareness developed in walking meditation is useful to all of us as we move our bodies from place to place in the course of a normal day.
Walking meditation develops balance and accuracy of awareness as well as durability of concentration. One can observe very profound aspects of the Dhamma while walking, and even get enlightened! In fact, a yogi who does not do walking meditation before sitting is like a ca with a rundown battery. He or she will have a difficult time starting the engine of mindfulness when sitting.
Walking meditation consists of paying attention to the walking process. If you are moving fairly rapidly, make a mental note of the movement of the legs, "Left, right, left, right" and use your awareness to follow the actual sensations throughout the leg area. If you are moving more slowly, note the lifting, moving, and placing of each foot. In each case you must try to keep your mind on just the sensations of Walking. Notice what processes occur when you stop at the end of the lane, when you stand still, when you turn and begin walking again. Do not watch your feet unless this becomes necessary due to some obstacle on the ground; it is unhelpful to hold the image of a foot in your mind while you are trying to be aware of sensations. You want to focus on the sensations themselves, and these are not visual. For many people it is a fascinating discovery when they are able to have a pure, bare perception of physical objects such as lightness, tingling, cold, and warmth.
Usually we divide walking into three distinct movements: lifting, moving, and placing the foot. To support a precise awareness, we separate the movements clearly, making a soft mental label at the beginning of each movement, and making sure that our awareness follows it clearly and powerfully until it ends. One minor but important point is to begin noting the placing movement at the instant that the foot begin~ to move downward.
A New World in Sensations
Let us consider lifting. We know its conventional name, but in meditation it is important to penetrate behind that conventional concept and to understand the true nature of the whole process of lifting, beginning with the intention to lift and continuing through the actual process, which involves many sensations.
Our effort to be aware of lifting the foot must neither overshoot the sensation nor weakly fall short of this target. Precise and accurate mental aim helps balance our effort. When our effort is balanced and our aim is precise, mindfulness will firmly establish itself on the object of awareness. It is only in the presence of these three factors--effort, accuracy, and mindfulness --that concentration develops. Concentration, of course, is collectedness of mind. Its characteristic is to keep consciousness from becoming diffuse or dispersed.
As we get closer and closer to this lifting process, we will see that
it is like a line of ants crawling across the road. From afar the line
may appear to be static, but from closer up it begins to shimmer and vibrate.
And from even closer the line breaks up into
individual ants, and we see that our notion of a line was just an illusion.
We now accurately perceive the line of ants as one ant after another ant,
after another ant. Exactly like this, when we look accurately at the lifting
process from beginning to end, the mental factor or quality of consciousness
called "insight" comes nearer to the object of observation. The
nearer insight comes, the clearer the true nature of the lifting process
can be seen. It is an amazing fact about the human mind that when insight
arises and deepens through Vipassana (or insight) meditation practice,
particular aspects of the truth about existence tend to be revealed in
a definite order. This order is known as the progress of insight.
The first insight, that meditators commonly experience is to begin to comprehend--not intellectually or by reasoning, but quite intuitively, that the lifting process is composed of distinct mental and material phenomena occurring together, as a pair. The physical sensations, which are material, are linked with, but different from, the awareness, which is mental. We begin to see a whole succession of mental events and physical sensations, and to appreciate the conditionality that relates mind and matter. We see with the greatest freshness and immediacy that mind causes matter--as when our intention to lift the foot initiates the physical sensations of movement, and we see that matter causes mind--as when a physical sensation of strong heat generates a wish to move our walking meditation into a shady spot. The insight into cause and effect can take a great variety of forms; but when it arises, our life seems far more simple to us than ever before. Our life is no more than a chain of mental and physical causes and effects. This is the second insight in the classical progress of insight.
As we develop concentration we see even more deeply that these phenomena of the lifting process are impermanent, impersonal, appearing, and disappearing one by one at fantastic speed. This is the next level of insight, the next aspect of existence that concentrated awareness becomes capable of seeing directly.
There is no one behind what is happening; the phenomena arise and pass away as an empty process, according to the law of cause and effect. This illusion of movement and solidity is like a movie. To ordinary perception it seems full of characters and objects, all the semblances of a world. But if we slow the movie down we will see that it is actually composed of separate, static frames of film.
Discovering the Path by Walking
When one is very mindful during a single lifting process––that is to say, when the mind is with the movement, penetrating with mindfulness into the true nature of what is happening--at that moment, the path to liberation taught by the Buddha opens up. The Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path, often known as the Middle Way or Middle Path, consists of the eight factors of right view or understanding, right thought or aim, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. During any moment of strong mindfulness, five of the eight path factors come alive in consciousness. There is right effort; there is mindfulness; there is one-pointedness or concentration; there is right aim; and as we begin to have insight into the true nature of the phenomena, right view also arises. And during a moment when these five factors of the Eightfold Path are present, consciousness is completed free from any sort of defilement.
As we make use of that purified consciousness to penetrate into the true nature of what is happening, we become free of the delusion or illusion of stiff we see only bare phenomena coming and going. When insight gives us intuitive comprehension of the mechanism of cause and effect, how mind and matter are related to one another, we free ourselves of misconceptions about the nature of phenomena. Seeing that each object lasts only for a moment, we free ourselves of the illusion of permanence, the illusion of continuity. As we understand impermanence and its underlying unsatisfactoriness, we are freed from the illusion that our mind and body are not suffering.
This direct seeing of impersonality brings freedom from pride and conceit, as well as freedom from the wrong view that we have an abiding self. When we carefully observe the lifting process, we see mind and body as unsatisfactory and so are freed from craving. These three states of mind---conceit, wrong view, and craving--are called "the perpetuating dhammas." They help to perpetuate existence in samsara, the cycle of craving and suffering that is caused by ignorance of ultimate truth. Careful attention in walking meditation shatters the perpetuating dhammas, bringing us closer to freedom.
can see that noting the lifting of one's foot has incredible possibilities!
These are no less present in moving the foot forward and in placing it
on the ground. Naturally, the depth and detail of awareness described in
these walking instructions, should also be applied to noting the abdominal
movement in sitting, and all other physical movements.
Five Benefits of Walking Meditation
The Buddha described five additional, specific benefits of walking meditation. The first is that one who does walking meditation will have the stamina to go on long journeys. This was important in the Buddha's time when bhikkhus and bikkhunis, monks and nuns, had no form of transportation other than the feet and legs. You who are meditating today can consider yourselves to be bhikkhus, and can think of this benefit simply as physical strengthening.
The second benefit is that walking meditation brings stamina for
the practice of meditation itself. During walking meditation a double effort
is needed, in addition to ordinary mechanical effort needed to lift the
foot, there is also the mental effort to be aware of the movement--and
this is the factor of right effort from the Noble Eightfold Path. If this
double effort continues
through the movements of lifting, pushing, and placing, it strengthens
the capacity for that strong, consistent mental effort all yogis know is
crucial to vipassana practice.
Third, according to the Buddha, a balance between sitting and walking contributes to good health, which in turn speeds progress in practice. Obviously it is difficult to meditate when we are sick. Too much sitting can cause many physical ailments. But the shift of posture and the movements of walking revive the muscles and stimulate circulation, helping prevent illness.
fourth benefit is that walking meditation assists digestion. Improper digestion
produces a lot of discomfort and is thus a hindrance to practice. Walking
keeps the bowels clear, minimizing sloth and torpor. After a meal, and
before sitting, one should do a good walking meditation to forestall drowsiness.
Walking as soon as one gets up in the morning is also a good way
to establish mindfulness and to avoid a nodding head in the
first sitting of the day. Last, but not least, of the benefits of walking is that it builds durable concentration. As the mind works to focus on each section of the movement during a walking session, concentration becomes continuous. Every step builds the foundation for the sitting that follows, helping the mind stay with the object from moment to moment---eventually to reveal the true nature of reality at the deepest level. This is why I use the simile of a car battery. If a car is never driven, its battery runs down. A yogi who never does walking meditation will have a difficult time getting anywhere when he or she sits down on the cushion. But one who is diligent in walking will automatically carry strong mindfulness and firm concentration into sitting meditation.
I hope that all of you will be successful in completely carrying out
this practice. May you be pure in your precepts, cultivating them in speech
and action, thus creating the conditions for developing samadhi and